• Abstinence: to completely refrain from the use of any alcohol or drugs.

    Addictive Personality: An addictive personality refers to a particular set of personality traits that make an individual predisposed to addictions. Addictions are characterized by a physical or psychological dependency that negatively impacts the quality of life of the person.

    ADP (or DADP): The Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs is responsible for administering prevention, treatment, and recovery services for alcohol and drug abuse and problem gambling.

    Adverse Reaction: Any unexpected or dangerous reaction to a drug. An unwanted effect caused by the administration of a drug. The onset of the adverse reaction may be sudden or develop over time.

    AIDS: AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the final and most serious stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system.

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking.

    Ambivalence: simultaneous and contradictory attitudes or feelings (as attraction and repulsion) toward an object, person, or action.

    Amphetamine: Amphetamine is a stimulant and an appetite suppressant. It stimulates the central nervous system (nerves and brain) by increasing the amount of certain chemicals in the body. This increases heart rate and blood pressure and decreases appetite, among other effects.

    Anorexia: Anorexia nervosa, commonly referred to simply as anorexia, is one type of eating disorder. More importantly, it is also a psychological disorder. Anorexia is a condition that goes beyond out-of-control dieting.

    AOD: Alcohol and Other Drugs

    AODA: Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Assessment: A psychological evaluation or mental examination is an examination into a person's mental health by a mental health professional such as a psychologist. A psychological evaluation may result in a diagnosis of a mental illness. It is the mental equivalent of a physical examination.

    Aversive Conditioning: Also referred to as aversion therapy, a technique used in behavior therapy to reduce the appeal of behaviors one wants to eliminate by associating them with physical or psychological discomfort.

  • Barbiturate: Barbiturates are a type of depressant drug that cause relaxation and sleepiness. In relatively low doses, barbiturates and alcohol have very similar clinical syndromes of intoxication.

    Behaviorism: Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions.

    Biofeedback: Biofeedback is the process of becoming aware of various physiological functions using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will. Processes that can be controlled include brainwaves, muscle tone, skin conductance, heart rate and pain perception.

    Blood Alcohol Level or Concentration: Blood alcohol content is most commonly used as a metric of intoxication for legal or medical purposes. It is usually expressed as a fractional percentage in terms of volume of alcohol per volume of blood in the body.

    Bulimia: Bulimia is an illness in which a person binges on food or has regular episodes of significant overeating and feels a loss of control. The affected person then uses various methods -- such as vomiting or laxative abuse -- to prevent weight gain.

  • CAADE: The California Association for Alcohol/Drug Educators (CAADE) was incorporated as a non-profit corporation in 1984.

    CAADPE: CAADPE, the California Association of Alcohol and Drug Program Executives, is a professional association of community-based nonprofit alcohol recovery and other substance use disorder treatment agency executives.

    CAARR: CAARR is a non-profit membership organization which serves as the principle voice for social model recovery programs throughout California.  Its members include:  recovery homes, sober living environments, neighborhood recovery centers and social   detoxification programs. 

  • DepressantsDrugs that reduce the activity of the nervous system (alcohol, downers, and narcotics).

    Designer DrugsIllegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical formulas. To circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known as designer drugs. Most are related to amphetamines. This can cause neurochemical damage to the brain.

    DetoxificationA treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to rid the body from addictive substances.

    DownersBarbiturates, minor tranquilizers, and related depressants.

    DrugA drug is any chemical substance that alters mood, perception, or consciousness.

    Drug AbusePathological use of prescribed or un-prescribed chemical substance.

    Dual DiagnosisSubstance abuse or chemical dependency in addition to or co-existing with a psychiatric disorder.

  • Enabling: Allowing irresponsible and destructive behavior patterns to continue by taking responsibility for others, not allowing them to face consequences of their own actions.

  • Families Anonymous: A 12-step, self-help recovery and fellowship of support groups for relatives and friends of those who have alcohol, drug or behavioral problems. They share their like experiences, strengths and hope with each other and with new members.

    Gamblers Anonymous (GA): is a twelve-step program for problem gamblers. The only requirement for GA membership is a desire to stop gambling.

    Gam-Anon and Gam-A-Teen: for spouses and children of problem gamblers. In the USA only you can find a meeting or talk to a live GA volunteer by calling 888-GA-HELPS(4357).

    GROW: is a peer support and mutual aid organization for recovery from, and prevention of, serious mental illness.

  • Habituation: The result of repeated consumption of a drug which produces psychological but no physical dependence. The psychological dependence produces a desire (not a compulsion) to continue taking drugs for the sense of improved well-being.

    Hallucinogens: Drugs that stimulate the nervous system and produce varied changes in perception and mood.

    Hashish: The concentrated resin of the marijuana plant.

    Heroin: A semi-synthetic derivative of morphine originally used as an analgesic and cough depressant. In harmful doses it induces euphoria; makes the user think that she/he is removed from reality, tension and pressures.
  • Inhalant: Volatile substance that is introduced into the body through the lungs.

    Inhalants are a diverse group of volatile substances whose chemical vapors can be inhaled to produce psychoactive (mind-altering) effects. While other abused substances can be inhaled, the term "inhalants" is used to describe substances that are rarely, if ever, taken by any other route of administration. A variety of products common in the home and workplace contain substances that can be inhaled to get high; however, people do not typically think of these products (e.g., spray paints, glues, and cleaning fluids) as drugs because they were never intended to induce intoxicating effects. Yet young children and adolescents can easily obtain these extremely toxic substances and are among those most likely to abuse them.

    Illicit Drugs: Drugs whose use, possession, or sale is illegal.

    Illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.

    Indian Alcohol Commission of California (ICC): A non-profit association in California represented by

    The IACC shall have a process available to recognize the credentials of Certified Counselors/Administrators from other alcohol/substance abuse certification boards, State certification bodies, or National Certification Reciprocity Consortium groups, providing that agreements have been established with the groups in advanceeighteen Commissioners. Present focus of this organization is on education and certification of counselors.

    Interpersonal Relationships: Developing and maintaining social relations between people. Between persons, Social (interpersonal skills).

    Interpersonal relationships are social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. They vary in differing levels of intimacy and sharing, implying the discovery or establishment of common ground, and may be centered around something(s) shared in common.

    Intoxication: Literally, a state of being poisoned or drugged; a condition produced by use (abuse) of toxic drugs, alcohol, barbiturates, and so forth.

    Substance intoxication is a type of substance-induced disorder which is maladaptive, impairing, and reversible, and associated with recent use Usually known by colloquial terms such as 'high', 'stoned', 'baked', 'blazed', etc. If the symptoms are severe, the term "substance intoxication delirium" may be used.

    Involuntary Smoking: Involuntary inhalation of the cigarette smoke of others.

    Involuntary (or passive) smoking is exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, which is a mixture of exhaled mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke released from the smouldering cigarette or other smoking device (cigar, pipe, bidi, etc.) and diluted with ambient air. Involuntary smoking involves inhaling carcinogens, as well as other toxic components, that are present in secondhand tobacco smoke. Secondhand tobacco smoke is sometimes referred to as 'environmental' tobacco smoke. Carcinogens that occur in secondhand tobacco smoke include benzene, 1,3-butadiene, benzo[a]pyrene, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and many others.

  • Legal Drugs: Everyday drugs not for medical use (e.g. alcohol, caffeine, carbohydrates, nicotine, etc.)

    LSD: distorts perception of time and space, and creates illusions and hallucinations. It comes in liquid form and most often swallowed after being placed on small pieces of paper. It increases heart rate and blood pressure. Symptoms are nausea, chills, flushes, irregular breathing, sweating and trembling.
  • Medical Model: A theory of drug abuse or addiction in which the addiction is seen as a medical, rather than as a social problem.

    Medical model is the term cited by psychiatrist Ronald D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays (1971), for the "set of procedures in which all doctors are trained." This set includes complaint, history, physical examination, ancillary tests if needed, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis with and without treatment. Sociologist Erving Goffman, in his Asylums, favorably compared the medical model, which was a post-Industrial Revolution occurrence, with the conduct in the tinkering trades (watch, radio, TV repair). The medical model is an approach to pathology that aims to find medical treatments for diagnosed symptoms and syndromes and treats the human body as a very complex mechanism (hence, Goffman's tinkering trade analogy).

    Metabolism (of drugs): All the chemical and physical reactions that the body carries out to prepare a drug for excretion.

    Drug metabolism is the biochemical modification of pharmaceutical substances by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. This is a form of xenobiotic metabolism. Drug metabolism often converts lipophilic chemical compounds into more readily excreted polar products. Its rate is an important determinant of the duration and intensity of the pharmacological action of drugs. Drug metabolism can result intoxication or detoxication - the activation or deactivation of the chemical. While both occur, the major metabolites of most drugs are detoxication products. Drugs are almost all xenobiotics. Other commonly used organic chemicals are also xenobiotics, and are metabolized by the same enzymes as drugs. This provides the opportunity for drug-drug and drug-chemical interactions or reactions.

    Morphine: Major sedative and pain-relieving drug found in opium, being approximately 10% of the crude opium exudate.

    Morphine (INN) (MS Contin, MSIR, Avinza, Kadian, Oramorph, Roxanol, Kapanol) is a potent opiate analgesic medication and is considered to be the prototypical opioid. It was discovered in 1804 by Serturner, first distributed by same in 1817, and first commercially sold by Merck in 1827, which at the time was a single small chemists' shop. It was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic needle in 1857.

    Methadone: A synthetically produced, long-acting opiate (trademark Dolophine).

    Methadone is used to relieve moderate to severe pain that has not been relieved by non-narcotic pain relievers. It also is used to prevent withdrawal symptoms in patients who were addicted to opiate drugs and are enrolled in treatment programs in order to stop taking or continue not taking the drugs.

  • Narcotic: A drug having the power to produce a state of sleep or drowsiness and to relieve pain with the potential of being dependence producing.

    The term narcotic originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties. It has since become associated with opioids, commonly morphine and heroin. The term is, today, imprecisely defined and typically has negative connotations. In a legal context, a narcotic drug is simply one that is totally prohibited, or one that is used in violation of strict governmental regulation, such as cocaine and marijuana. From a pharmacological standpoint, it is a vague and ineffectual term. On the other hand, the legal usage of the word does provide a convenient shorthand term, useful in contexts where the legal status of a drug is considered more pertinent than its pharmacological action.

    NCADD: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence.

    Neurotransmitter: A natural chemical released by one neuron to influence or communicate with another. Acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA, etc.

    Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse. Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles clustered beneath the membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse, and are released into the synaptic cleft, where they bind to receptors in the membrane on the postsynaptic side of the synapse. Release of neurotransmitters usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse, but may also follow graded electrical potentials. Low level "baseline" release also occurs without electrical stimulation.

    Nicotine: The main active ingredient of tobacco. Extremely toxic and causing irritation of lung tissues, constriction of blood vessels, increased blood pressure and heart rate, and, in general, central nervous system stimulation.

    Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) that constitutes approximately 0.6-3.0% of dry weight of tobacco, with biosynthesis taking place in the roots and accumulation occurring in the leaves. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical with particular specificity to insects; therefore nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past, and currently nicotine analogs such as imidacloprid continue to be widely used. Nicotine is also found in several other members of the Solanaceae family, with small amounts being present in species such as the Eggplant and Tomato.

    NBAE: National Board of Addiction Examiners. A not for profit national organization belonging to the National Association of Forensic Counselors. NBAE provides certification to those in the addiction field, including the CCDC certification, which is currently recognized by California, Oregon, and Washington for equivalance to State certification in Addiction Counseling.

  • Operant Conditioning: Operant conditioning follows the US psychologist Edward Thorndike's (1874-1949) law of effect' (1911): that responses become more frequent if followed by satisfying consequences but less frequent if followed by aversive consequences. Skinner showed that a rat which is rewarded when it operates on' its environment by pressing a lever will increase its number of lever-presses. It is therefore associating the stimulus (reinforcement) with its own behavior (response). This is referred to as S-R conditioning. (see also, Classical Conditioning, Conditioning) (Ref. 3)

    Operant conditioning is the use of a behavior's antecedent and/or its consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior. Operant behavior "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions. Behaviors conditioned via a classical conditioning procedure are not maintained by consequences.

    Opiate: Any substance, natural or synthetic, that is related in action to morphine and binds to the same, or some of the same, receptors. Some writers use it just to mean opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin - the natural ingredients of the poppy and their derivatives, excluding the synthetic narcotic analgesics.

    opiate describes any of the narcotic opioid alkaloids found as natural products in the opium poppy plant, as well as many semisynthetic chemical derivatives of such alkaloids.

    Opioids Synthetic opiates.

    An opioid is a chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate both the beneficial effects and the side effects of opioids.

    Over-the-Counter Drugs: Drugs legally sold without a prescription.

    Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a health care professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may only be sold to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

  • Pep pills: amphetamines.

    A tablet or capsule containing a stimulant drug, especially an amphetamine.

    Pharmacology: The branch of science that deals with the study of drugs and their action on living systems.

    Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

    Placebo: A pharmacologically inert substance that may elicit a significant reaction entirely because of the mental set of the patient or the physical setting in which the drug is taken.

    A placebo (Latin: I will please) is a sham or simulated medical intervention that can produce a (perceived or actual) improvement, called a placebo effect.

    In medical research, placebos depend on the use of controlled and measured deception. Common placebos are inert tablets, sham surgery, and other procedures based on false information.[1

    Precursor: In a metabolic sequence of reactions, a compound that gives rise to the next compound: for example, choline is the precursor for the neurotransmitter acetyicholine

    A biochemical substance, such as an intermediate compound in a chain of enzymatic reactions, from which a more stable or definitive product is formed: a precursor of insulin.

    Prescription Drugs: A controlled drug available only by the order of a licensed physician, P.A. or nurse Practitioners' prescription.

    A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. The term is used to distinguish it from over-the-counter drugs which can be obtained without a prescription. ..

    Prevention: Primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention is an active assertive process of creating conditions and or personal attributes that promotes the well being of people. Secondary prevention is early detection and intervention to keep beginning problems from becoming more severe. Tertiary prevention is the effort to rehabilitate those affected with severe disorders and return

    The act of going, or state of being, before; Anticipation; esp., anticipation of needs, wishes, hazards and risks ; hence, precaution; forethought. --Hammond. Shak; The act of preventing or hindering; obstruction of action, access, or approach; thwarting.

    Prognosis: The prediction of a probable outcome of a disease.

    Psychedelic: relating to new or altered perceptions or sensory experiences, as through the use of hallucinogenic drugs

    Psychoactive Drug: a drug that can cause mood changes and distorted perceptions

    Psychotherapy: the method of treating psychological abnormalities by psychological techniques.

    Psychotropic Drug:  is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system cable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior.Gale Encylopedia of Medicine.  2008

    Psychological Dependence:  A strong need for something without being psysically addicted to it.

    Psychopharmacology : The area of pharmacology that deals with the study of the actions, effects, and development of psychoactive drugs.

    Psychiatrist: A physician who specializes in psychiatry.

  • Receptor: a sensory nerve ending that changes specific stimuli into nerve impulses

    Recidivism: Return to a type of behavior, such as drug taking. Habitual relapse.

    Recovery: A lifelong process of change to abstain from alcohol/drug usage. A character building process which increases the chance of staying clean and sober.

    Relapse: To fall back into the former state of drinking or using once treatment or recovery has begun. The act of going back to old behavior or regressing from sobriety.

  • Straight:  Not being under the influence of alcohol or drugs

    Substance Abuse The excessive use of a substance, especially alcohol or a drug.

    Synergism:  A phenomenon in which a mixture of 2 chemicals exhibits higher toxicity to a pest than would be expected from their individual toxicities. Can involve either 2 pesticides, or one pesticide plus a substance that is not by itself toxic to the pest, termed a synergist.

    Syndrome:  a set of symptoms occurring together; the sum of signs of any morbid state; a symptom complex.

  • Tuberculosis (TB)A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Abbreviated TB.

    Therapeutic CommunityTherapeutic community is a term applied to a participative, group-based approach to long-term mental illness, personality disorders and drug addiction. The approach is usually residential with the clients and therapists living together, is based on milieu therapy principles and includes group psychotherapy as well as practical activities.

    Tolerancethe capacity of the body to endure or become less responsive to a substance (as a drug) or a physiological insult especially with repeated use or exposure

    ToxicityThe degree to which a substance can harm humans or animals.

    Tranquilizers : a depressant drug, as Valium or Librium, used as a calming agent in relieving and controlling various emotional disturbances, anxiety neuroses, certain psychoses, etc.

  • Ups Or Uppers: a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression.

  • Values: the ideals, customs, institutions, etc., of a society toward which the people of the group have an affective regard. These values may be positive, as cleanliness, freedom, or education, or negative, as cruelty, crime, or blasphemy.

  • Source: (2009)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2004)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2009)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source : (2010)
    Source: (2008)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2010)
    Gale Encylopedia of Medicine. 2008
    Collins English Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003
    Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2008 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
    Ologies & -Isms. Copyright 2008
    Encarta World English Dictionary [North American Edition] © & (P)2009
    The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company
    The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
    Collins English Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003
    Collins English Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003
    Source: (2009)
    Source: (2003)
    Source: (2009)
    Source: (2010)
    Source: (2009)
    Source: (2008)
    Source: (2009)
    Source: (2008)
    Source: (2009)
    Source: ( 2010 )
    Source: (2009)